Russia should be banned from athletics competition, a World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) commission report has recommended.
WADA’s independent commission examined allegations of doping, cover-ups, and extortion in Russian athletics, which also implicated the IAAF, the sport’s world governing body.
It says London 2012 was “sabotaged” by “widespread inaction” against athletes with suspicious doping profiles.
Russia were also accused of running a “state-supported” doping programme.
The report also recommended that five athletes and five coaches should be given lifetime doping bans.
The commission’s chairman, Dick Pound, who led a WADA news conference on Monday, said: “For the 2016 Olympic Games our recommendation is that the Russian federation be suspended,” he said.
“One of our hopes is they will volunteer to take the remedial work – if they don’t the outcome may be no Russian track and field athletes in Rio. I hope they recognise it is time to change.”
Pound, meanwhile, gave his backing to IAAF president Lord Coe, saying he was the right man to lead the governing body.
In an IAAF statement, Lord Coe described the information in the WADA report as “alarming” and said he would seek approval from the governing body’s council members to consider sanctions against the Russian athletics federation (Araf), which could include suspension.
Russia’s sport minister, Vitaly Mutko, has denied all allegations, while Araf has accused WADA of circumventing established protocols for dealing with doping.
“Any suspension should be discussed at the meeting of the IAAF in November,” the acting Araf head, Vadim Zelechenok, told R-Sport channel. “It should be proven that any violations were the fault of the federation and not individual sportspeople. We should be given a chance to clear our names.”
The international police body Interpol says it will be coordinating a global investigation into the suspected corruption and doping.